Beth Capell, Health Access’ contract lobbyist extraordinaire, has been advocating for consumers for more than two decades. She offers these thoughts on balance billing, an insidious practice of some doctors and hospitals who decide to threaten insured consumers with aggressive collection agency if the consumer does not pay the “balance” between the insurer or HMO paid for their care and what the doctor or hospital wanted to be paid. (Relatedly, we blogged on a recent and egregious example of the Prime/Kaiser situation. 5/17 UPDATE: There’s a new development, where a legal injunction has been ordered, as reported in the Orange County Register on balance billing. The LA Times also has a story.)
“Balance” billing has been illegal for Medicare and Medicaid enrollees for decades. It is illegal for HMO enrollees if they go to a contract facility. And until a few years ago, we probably would have said balance billing was illegal when an insured consumer got emergency care, even at a non-contract hospital.
As consumers, we are sympathetic to doctors and hospitals who feel badly treated by HMOs and insurers. We know what that’s like.
But as consumer representatives, we are pretty impatient with doctors and hospitals that treat consumers badly. We don’t like that either. And when it is all about a billing dispute between providers and plans, we say a pox on both their houses: get consumers out of the middle.
Well, this week DMHC had a hearing on a regulation to do just that: to say that if a consumer with coverage regulated by DMHC gets emergency care, then the consumer is only responsible for applicable copays or deductible, not for the difference between what the emergency doctor or the hospital wanted to be paid and what the HMO paid. Health Access is fortunate that our representative at this hearing is Elizabeth Abbott, who formerly headed the federal Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) in the western region of the United States: she has heard plenty of plan-provider disputes in her day and has no surfeit of patience with whining. She reports that doctors are furious at the proposed regulation.
As we said, we are sympathetic to doctors and hospitals fighting with HMOs. And indeed we as well as the Department have spent endless hours listening to the complaining of doctors and hospitals.
After all that, we know several things: first, consumers deserve to be protected from bad behavior by doctors and hospitals as well as HMOs and insurers. Second, under California law, doctors and hospitals that do not have a contract with the consumer’s HMO do in fact get paid and usually get paid in a reasonable period of time (less than 60 days). So what are the doctors and hospitals fighting with the HMOs about? It turns out it is not just about the amount of the payment but also what counts how.
You would think that it would be easy to decide that when an ER doc takes care of you because you have a broken bone, he should be paid for reading the x-ray or MRI, but it turns out whether that is part of the bundle of services or not is part of what providers and plans fight over. And they fight over it partly because there is no standardization of bundling. The docs, not surprisingly, want the bundling system the docs have developed (called the AMA/CPT code, if you care). But Medicare decided a long time ago that letting the docs set the rules by which they are paid does not make much sense and ditto with Medi-Cal.
And we made it lots more complicated in California when we allowed the development of the “delegated medical model”. (If your eyes are crossing, welcome to my world.) That means that Blue Shield does not just contract with individual docs, but instead contracts with Sutter Medical Group or Hill Physicians or Beaver or Scripps or some other outfit with thousands of docs and hundreds of thousands of patients. So if you are a Sutter Medical Group patient but you end up at UC Davis emergency room because that is where the ambulance took you, what are the rules for bundling the claim? Is that thing-y they put on your finger to check your blood oxygen in or out of the bundle? Is it the Medicare rules? The Sutter group rules? The Blue Shield rules? Or are you actually HealthNet? And why do you care? Well, probably you will when the ER doc or the hospital loses their
patience with the HMO and just decides to send you to collections and let you
fight it out with the HMO.
And yes, this is yet another way in which our current system piles on administrative overhead for no good reason. So in addition to fighting to prohibit balance billing of consumers, we are trying to help figure out how to minimize the provider-plan disputes by supporting a single set of rules for bundling as well as other changes.
The need to end balance billing got a lot more obvious this week when we found out that one hospital system in Southern California, Prime Healthcare, had sent over 6,000 Kaiser members to collections because Kaiser would not pay whatever Prime Healthcare wanted to charge for their emergency care. Prime Healthcare is a system that refuses to contract with most insurers—so it is not just Kaiser members who are at risk: it is anyone with insurance who walks into their emergency room. It looks as if Prime Healthcare took on Kaiser first but nothing prevents the hospitals from doing the same thing to consumers covered by other insurers that Prime fails to contract with. And Prime also seems to be engaged in the same old game that for-profit Tenet used to play of turbo-charging the charges for care so that the sticker price goes up and up.
As well as the proposed regulations, we are working on AB1203 (Salas) and SB981 (Perata) to prevent balance billing of patients who get emergency care. While both these bills are still in progress, we hope this year we can get consumers out of the middle of these provider-plan disputes.